Books of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah
1. Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq
This first book of Hazrat Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq (The truth about Kalima-tul-Haq) was written in 1897 AD in Persian language. It gained wide approbation in the Islamic world because of its high scholarly and analytical content, and the erudite discussion on important religious and spiritual issues contained in it. In 1962, a second edition of the book, containing Urdu translation along with Persian text, was published. Finally, a third hard-bound edition was published, with further amplifications and printing improvements, in December 1991.
The central themes of this book is Wahdat-ul-wajood (Ultimate Oneness of Being), and the Kalimah-e-Tawhid (Translation: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger). This book of Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) provides a masterly exposition of the concept of “Wahdat-ul-Wajood” and helped clear many of the prevailing misinterpretations of the concept.
Reason for writing the book
The agreed meanings and implications of Wahdat-ul-Wajood and Wahdat-ush-Shahud appear to have been departed from by one Maulana Abdul Rahman of Lucknow, a contemporary of Hazrat, in his booklet titled “Kalimatul Haq” (The Word of Truth). The Maulana was an eminent religious scholar, well-versed in both Shariah sciences and in Tasawwuf (Sufism) He was a staunch believer in Wahdat-ul-Wajood, in theory as well as practice. It appears, however, that during the course of his spiritual journey, he was so overcome by excessive absorption in the concept of Tawhid-e-wujudi (Unity of Being) as to indulge in a rather distorted interpretation of the concept in his above-mentioned book. In effect, he described idols (false gods) to be “at par with Allah”, through a mis-interpretation of the word “ilah” (god) used in the Kalima-e-Tawhid. Maulana even went a step further and asserted that the entire Muslim Ummah was under an obligation to accept his aforesaid version of Wahdat-ul-wajood, and that ulama (past or present) who rejected this version were, or would be, guilty of misguidance.
Taking serious note of this, some contemporary ulama denounced Maulana Abdul Rahman’s views as amounting to heresy, although very few of them were able to effectively counter the many learned and weighty arguments that the Maulana had advanced in support of his view-point. The result was that the issue threatened to disrupt the unity of the entire Muslim ummah.
It was this point that Hazrat decided to intervene, and wrote his book titled “Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalimatul Haq”. In this book, he refuted Maulana Abdul Rahman’s stand on the the point at issue with powerful and convincing arguments derived from Quran and the hadith. He conclusively proved that the meaning and interpretation of Kalima-e-Tawhid, which had been unanimously accepted and acted upon by the Islamic ummah ever since the period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and with his full approval, but which Maulana Abdul Rahman had differed from in his booklet, were enough to preserve the iman of a Muslim, and to rid him from “kufr” (unbelief) and shirk (association or ascribing “partners” to Allah). At the same time, however, Hazrat desisted from dubbing Maulana as a heretic, as many other ulama had done. Instead he considered the latter’s views to be based, not on any willful or ill-intentioned distortion but on an “overpowering spiritual experience”, and therefore attributable to a state of mind beyond the Maulana’s own control.
The subject covered in Hazrat’s book was highly delicate and sensitive. Furthermore, the arguments advanced by the Maulana in support of his point of view had been very strong and scholarly, and they could only be refuted by reasoning equally logical and convincing. Because of this, Hazrat’s book was necessarily a highly erudite and scholarly piece of writing, and its contents could be truly understood only by persons well-versed in both the Arabic language in which the book was written, and the intricacies and subtleties of the spirit.
Indeed the book was hailed by distinguished scholars and sufia as a work of outstanding merit and a masterpiece. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, who occupies a position of eminence among the Sub-continent’s ulama, was reported to have observed,
“If Hazrat Meher Ali Shah had not produced this book, it would have become exceedingly difficult (if not well-nigh impossible) for the Muslim community to preserve its age-old belief structure in the face of the powerful case made by Maulana Abdul Rahman for his point of view. Thanks to this book, the controversy which threatened to divide the ummah into two bitterly opposed groups was amicably resolved and laid to rest for all time to come”.
Topics covered in the book
a) Meaning and explanation of the Kalima’s opening words “ There is no god but Allah”;
b) A discussion of Tawhid-e-wujudi (Unity of Being), and of the way to understand and experience it as done by the classical and eminent spiritual masters;
c) Meaning and explanation of the second part of the Kalimah “ (Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the Messenger of Allah)”; and
d) Selected ahadith (traditions) of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) on this and related subjects.
2. Shamsul Hidayah
As mentioned earlier, this book was written by Hazrat (R.A) as a part of his fight against Qadianism or Ahmadiya movement. In short, the book Shamsul Hidayah established the case for Jesus Christ’s ascent to Heaven “alive” and “in person” in such forceful and incontrovertible terms as to totally demolish Mirza’s interpretation and claims. The book was, therefore, acclaimed by the Muslim ulama of all schools of thought. Thisbook was written in the year 1899.
Reason for writing the book – in Hazrat’s (R.A) own words
A summary of reasons given by Hazrat in the beginning of the book for its compilation is reproduced below:
(a) The era of true guidance, firm adherence to the faith, and balanced thinking and action is now long past, with the result that human nature is being increasingly influenced by prejudice and ignorance.
(b) Due to the general lack of piety, and fear of God, inner light, and scholarly ability, it has become difficult to distinguish between right and wrong and to preserve true belief.
(c) Simplicity and truth, which are among the basic and important principles of Islam, have given place to greed, mischief and hypocrisy.
(d) Despite these shortcomings, people now tend to consider themselves to be all-knowing, and to regard the visions of prophets of Allah to be the subject of error and misinterpretation, and the “ijtihadat” (re-interpretations) of early ulama to be ‘obsolete’ while they consider their own meanings and interpretations to be immune from those faults.
(e) Because of all this, the patently wrong and misleading views set forth in Qadyani writings have started gaining more and more credence, making it imperative that something effective be done to stem this tide.
Hazrat added that the Qadyani views had been brought to his notice earlier, but he had been restraining the ulama from condemning them because he considered this to be against the Islamic principles of tolerance and broadness of outlook. However, a situation had now been reached which could not be tolerated or ignored any longer. He had, therefore, written the book “Shamsul Hidayah” to inform the people about the true meanings of the Quranic ayah and the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ahadith on the related points, and thereby ensure that the established and unanimously accepted beliefs of Islam are not discarded merely due to the lack of correct knowledge.
In short, the book Shamsul Hidayah established the case for Jesus Christ’s ascent to heaven “alive and in person” in such forceful and incontrovertible terms as to totally demolish Mirza’s interpretation and claims. The book was, therefore, acclaimed by the Muslim ulama of all schools of thought. The adverse and abusive remarks made about it by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and his followers in their various writings and sayings were an indirect proof of their helplessness in providing an effective answer to the arguments and reasoning presented by Hazrat in the book. The book has gone through three editions since it was published, the latest one having been published in 1985.
As Hazrat had made out a very strong case in his book “Shamsul Hidayah” to expose the fallacy of the arguments put forward by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to back up his claim to be the masil of Jesus Christ and later the Promised Messiah in person. Besides negating those arguments, Hazrat had also called upon Mirza to explain the true inner meaning of the Kalima-e-Tayyibah.
About two years of the publication of Shamsul Hidayah, the Qadyani camp published two books by way of rejoinders to Shamsul Hidayah. One of these titled “Ijaz-ul-Masih” (The Miracle of Messiah), was written by Mirza himself. Concerning his own book, Mirza put forward the claim that it was beyond human power to reply to the arguments contained in that book (Ijaz-ul-Masih).
The second Qadyani book, titled “Shams-e-Bazighah” (The Shining Sun) was written and published by Mirza Sahib’s loyal disciple and old-time associate, Maulvi Ahsan Amrohi. In this book, an effort was made, besides other things, to give a detailed explanation of the Kalimah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger), as had been demanded by Hazrat in his book Shamsul Hidayah.
In reply to Mirza’s two aforesaid books, Ijaz-ul-Masih and Shams-e-Bazighah, Hazrat wrote his now-renowned book Saif-e-Chishtiyai (The Chishtia Sword), and had it distributed free of cost to the sub-continent’s ulama and mashaikh as well as among religious schools and other institutions.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai further elaborated the arguments contained in Hazrat’s earlier book Shams-ul-Hidayah. In addition, it made nearly one hundred critical comments on the incorrect meaning and logic, errors of grammar, diction and idiom, plagiarisms and distortions in respect of Surah Al-Fateha (the opening Surah of the Holy Quran) as contained in Mirza’s Ijaz-ul-Masih. Similar criticism were made of the contents of Shams-e-Bazighah, in which an effort had been made by Mirza to spell out the meaning of the Kalimah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is Allah’s Messenger) as demanded by Hazrat in Shams-ul-Hidayah and objections had also been raised to the various points made in that book (Ijaz-ul-Masih, written by Mirza Qadyani).
As clarified by Hazrat in his introductory remarks, this book, like Shamsul Hidayah, was also written by Hazrat on the insistence of some ulama and other people rather than on his own initiative, and its real purpose was to explain the correct position of the related issues from the standpoints of the Quran and the Hadith for the information and guidance of people rather than to indulge in polemics with Mirza and his followers.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai elaborated further upon the arguments contained in Hazrat’s earlier book Shamsul Hidayah, and also gave convincing rejoinders to the objections raised by Mirza concerning that book. In addition, it made nearly one hundred critical comments on the incorrect meanings and logic, errors of Arabic grammar, diction and idiom (which are crucially important in relation to the Quran and the Hadith, since even the slightest error can completely distort the meanings of the relevant ayat and ahadith) in respect of Surah Al-Fateha contained in Mirza’s Ijaz-ul-Masih. Similar criticisms were made of the contents of Shams-e-Bazighah. The details of these various comments, which can be properly understood only by those well-versed in Arabic language and in religious issues, may be seen in the book itself.
In Saif-e-Chishtiyai, Hazrat had inter alia predicted that since Mirza was an impostor, he would never have the privilege of visiting Madina Munawwara and paying his respects at the tomb of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), which, according to a hadith was one of the things which Jesus Christ (the real Promised Massiah) was destined to do, along with the performance of Hajj, after his future descent to earth. This prediction was proved correct when Mirza died a few years later neither performing Hajj nor visiting Madina.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai was hailed by contemporary religious scholars as a masterpiece on the subject. It was quoted extensively by writers of Quranic commentaries and other religious authors as a reference to prove their various points. As intended, this book did effectively stem the advancing Qadyani tide, making it almost completely ineffective. It helped thousands of Muslims to rediscover the truth about the issues that Qadianism had raised, besides making many Qadianis themselves repent and rejoin the ranks of orthodox Muslims.
4. I’la Kalimatillah Fi Bayan-e-Wa Ma Uhilla Bihi Legharillah
(Exalting the Word of Allah through the Quranic ayah: “And that which hath been dedicated to anyone other than Allah- II, 173). First Published in 1322 A.H. (1904-05 A.D.).
Purpose of the book
This book was written by Hazrat (R.A) to present the correct and balanced view, according to the Quran and Sunnah, concerning certain issues of day-to-day significance, which have been a constant source of controversy among ulama of different schools of thought.
a) Permissibility of sacrificing animals in the name of Allah by way of thanksgiving to Him, but at the same time as an invocation of blessing for the souls of eminent religious and spiritual personalities;
b) Legitimacy of making offering at shrines of ‘ulama and Mashaikh (spiritual leaders);
c) Seeking spiritual help from the souls of eminent deceased Awlia-e-Allah;
d) True meaning and scope of the Quranic injunctions to the believers to place complete and absolute faith in Allah in all matters;
e) Intercession by prophets before Allah on the sinners’ behalf on the Day of Judgment; and
f) Ability of the deceased to hear after death.
The book was meant to rectify the extremist and diametrically divergent views that had come to prevail over time among ulama of different schools on these points. Immediate occasion for writing it was provided by certain questions posted to Hazrat by a group of Pakhtun and Afghan ulama from Indian’s NWFP. For the benefit of these ulama, Hazrat wrote the book in Persian. Later, on Hazrat Babuji’s initiative, the Persian text was republished along with its Urdu translation for the benefit of the general reader.
5. AlFatuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Bounties)
This book (published in 1325 A.H. – 1907-08 AD) was written in answer to ten questions addressed by a group of non-conformist ulama to Hazrat indirectly through one of his disciples, Qaim Ali Chishti who was in a Madressah Nomaniya.
The questions posed by the non-conformist ulama had been carefully chosen, so as to cover several different branches of Islamic sciences. This was not done presumably in the hope that no single person could be so widely learned as to be able to do justice to all of them. They covered, for example, such subjects as scholastic theology, linguistics, jurisprudence, philosophy, logic, Euclidean Geometry, numbers, and so on, many of which had generated controversies among ‘ulama of the early Islamic period. Thanks, however, to the ‘Ilm-e-laduni (Divinely inspired knowledge) with which he had been blessed by Allah. Hazrat gave detailed replies to each one of the Questions.
To sum up, Hazrat’s book Al Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah covers some of the exceedingly complex and abstruse branches of Islamic sciences, and provides ample proof of the extraordinary vastness and depth of Hazrat’s knowledge and erudition.
Twelve questions posed by Hazrat to the non-conformist ulama, which were never answered
The twelve questions addressed by Hazrat to non-conformist ulama at the end of the book Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah, which, as stated earlier, never elicited any answers from the latter, are summarized below:
Ilm-ul-Huruf (Science of letters)
Reproducing a saying of Syedna Muhammad bin Ali with respect to the alphabetic system, Hazrat asked the ulama to explain the meaning of that saying, and the reason for their present sequential order.
Ilm-ul-Hai’ah (Science of shapes and forms)
Citing one of the observations of Uwaisa-ibn-ul-Kamal on this subject, Hazrat asked for the reasons behind it.
Ilm-e-Riyadi (Science of Mathematics)
Hazrat sought a solution to one of the conundrum (riddles) attributed to Sahib Abi Madyan, which was more concise than the one that the ulama had asked Hazrat to decipher.
Ilm-e-Fiqh (Science of jurisprudence)
An explanation was sought about the source and the reason of the “exception” contained in the following expression of leading Islamic jurists:
“The maturity of the shadow of everything is similar in size to the thing itself except around noon-time”.
Ilm-ul-kalam (Science of scholastic theology)
Citing some of the observations of leading scholastic theologians like Ashari, Ibn-e-Kalab Hishm-bin Al-Hikam, Ibn Sina and others about the Word of Allah and about letters and sounds, Hazrat asked his opponents to analytically prove the correctness of anyone of those observations. He also inquired whether the latter regarded “sifat” (attributes) of Allah to be identical with zaat (“person”) of Allah Himself or separate from It.
Ilm-ul-Iqlidas (Science of Euclidean geometry)
Which is the geometrical figure that proves tawhid (Unity of Allah)? And which is the figure relied upon by a Trinitarian Christian to justify his creed of Trinity. Also indicate how the latter can be disproved with the help of Euclidean geometry itself?
Make three circles whose radiuses are equal in length to three given lines, of which one touches (the circle) on the inside and the other on the outside. Describe also the nature of relationship between the three radiuses which is conducive to the solution of the problem.
Ilm-e-Falsafah (Science of philosophy)
Quoting the argument of the Ashairah (The Asharits) concerning the “recentness” (as opposed to “ancientness”) of the universe, and describing it as incorrect, Hazrat has called for reasons (if any) in favour of its correctness.
Ilm-ul-Hadith (Science of Prophetic Tradition)
Hazrat’s (R.A) question on this subject is also reproduced in full because of its importance:
“The hadith concerning “Tahawwul-fissuwar” (transformation of figures) included in Sahih-ul-Bukhari – apparently conflicts with the Quranic ayah (There is nothing whatever like unto Him (i.e., Allah) – XLII, 11. Please reconcile the two. How many scholars have objected to this hadith, and why? Give the reasons for this from the hadith and the ayah themselves.
“In the hadith concerning the ‘Miraj’ (Ascension) of the Holy Prophet Moses from among the apostles of Allah for the purpose of intervening in the matter of determining the number of obligatory ritual prayers to be enjoined upon the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ummah? And why was this intervention considered necessary at all considering that the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself had been blessed by Allah with the knowledge of everything – past, present and future?
“What is the position of each particular apostle with respect to the specific “falak” (heaven) to which he is related?”
Ilm-ul-Kalam (scholastic theology)
Hazrat sought clarification as to why in the following Quranic ayat, which relate excerpts form the conversation between the Prophet Moses and Khizar, the latter used the singular pronoun for himself in the first ayah and the plural one in the second:
(i) As for the ship it belonged to poor people working on the river, and I wished to mar it for there was a king behind them who was taking every ship by force (XVIII, 79)
(ii) And we intended that their (i.e., the parents’) Lord should change him (i.e., the rebellious son) for one better in purity and nearer to mercy.
Ilm-ut-Tafseer (Science of Quranic commentary)
In relation to the ayah – “And all things We have kept in a clear register (XXXVI, 12).
Hazrat called for an explanation for the commentary on it by Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi (R.A), and on the points arising out of that commentary.
Ilm-ul-Aflak (The science of astronomy / astrology)
Hazrat sought an explanation of some of the Quranic verses containing reference to celestial bodies (sun, moon, stars etc). In particular, he enquired about the reason for the phases of the moon having been specified as twenty-eight (28).
The opposing ulama were asked to reconcile some of the conflicting observations concerning astronomy/astrology and mathematics.
To sum up, Hazrat’s book Al Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah, covers some of the exceedingly complex and abstruse branches of Islamic branches and provides ample proof of the extraordinary vastness and depth of Hazrat’s knowledge and erudition.
Moreover, these questions still remain unanswered.
Tasfiah Mabain Sunni Wa Shi’ah
This book, the last of Hazrat’s writings in prose, represents an effort by him to amicably resolve the age-old schism between the Sunni and Shi’ah sects of Islam. The major cause of discord between the two sects has been the divergence of views between them about the manner in which the question of succession to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) was settled after his passing away, and especially about the order in which the four Pious Caliphs (Abubakar, Umar, Usman and Ali) were installed in the office. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself had not nominated a successor, and had left the question to be decided on the basis of democratic consensus in accordance with the true principles of Islam. Although the matter was resolved with unison and amity at the time, issues seeking to sow the seeds of dissension were raised concerning it, long after the event, by forces which could only be regarded as ill wishers of the Muslim Ummah that had attained dizzy heights of glory in a short period of time.
Because of the ruinous effects of this schism on the unity and integrity of the Muslim Ummah, moderation-living ulama have endeavored from the beginning to bridge it through their writings and pronouncements. Unfortunately, the schism has continued to persist, largely because the voice of moderation and restraint has often been stifled amidst the tumult of extremism, and also because the ill wishers of the Islamic Ummah have, through their machinations and conspiracies, not allowed the controversy to be resolved once and for all. Realizing the grave and fundamental significance of this matter, therefore, Hazrat decided to write on the issue in what was meant to be yet another effort to effect a lasting reconciliation between the two sects. In this book, he quoted extensively from Quran and Hadith to establish the legitimacy of the decision taken consensually on the question of Khilafat (succession) to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), and to present the correct and balanced view about the respective eminence of members of the Prophet’s household (Ahle-baet) and his distinguished Companions (As’haab) which had also developed overtime into a major point of conflict. The balanced but scholarly and convincing tone in which the book has been written cannot but elicit the admiration of all fair-minded readers. At the end the august author appealed to both the sects to follow the path of moderation which is hallmark of Islam, and to view the issue involved objectively and in correct perspective.
Hazrat dictated the manuscript of this book to Khan Bahadur Maulvi Sher Muhammad, custodian of his respondence, for some time before it was interrupted, first by Hazrat’s illness and then by the onset of spiritual state which developed gradually into Istighraq (total spiritual absorption). During his illness, Hazrat’s permission was sought for the printing and publication of the manuscript but he desired the matter to be deferred for the time being. Unfortunately Hazrat passed away before the final completion and publication of the book. After a careful review of the 142-page manuscript, the book was published in 1979 with suitable explanatory notes.
Hazrat’s foreword indicating reasons for writing the book
“The friction between the Sunni and Shi’ah is not something new, that it should call for an appeal by seekers of truth to present-day ‘ulama for its resolution. Indeed, our venerable ancestors have been giving expression to their views on the subject on the one hand and love for the Ahle-baet (Members of the Prophet’s household) on the other with due moderation and decorum over the past few centuries. Unfortunately, however, a new element seems to have entered the scene in the recent times. This is the belief that it is essential for a true sunni to be antagonistic to the Ahle-baet and friendly towards the Umayyids, i.e., the two groups that were pitted against each other in the battle of Karbala. The fact, however, is that the sunnis have never been guilty of this attitude; indeed love and respect for Ahle-baet has always been regarded by the sunni sect as a corner of their belief structure.
“The reason for this new trend seems to be that sunni ulama have, in their speeches and teachings, tended largely to focus on rebutting the shi’ah practice of hurling abuse on the Umayyad and their sympathizers, and have given much less attention to highlight the virtues and excellent qualities of the Ahle-baet. “In view of this situation, some well-meaning sunni ‘ulama have lately been emphasizing the need for effective stemming of the aforesaid unhealthy trend. In compliance with their wishes, and despite my lack of ability, competence and time for this deterring task, I have therefore decided to write a few pages on the subject. These pages bring together some of the views contained in earlier writings and my own considered ideas on the subject. They are meant for the information of persons interested in this vital issue, with the prayer that the readers should pray for my salvation in recompense for a humble service to Islam. May Allah, Who bestowed on the world and its denizens His boundless Mercy in the august person of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam (termed Rahmat-ul-lil Alamin – Mercy for all the words) by Allah Himself in Quran, condone the sins of the Muslim ‘Ummah and forgive us all.”
Topics covered in the book
Corroboration of legitimacy of the Righteous Caliphate (Khilafat-e-Rashida) with evidence from the Quran especially ayah 55 of Surah XXIV of the Holy Book, which runs as follows:
“Allah hath promised such of you as believe (O mankind !) and do good works that He will surely make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who went before them their religion which He hath approved for them, and will give them in exchange safety after their fear. They serve Me; (and) they ascribe nothing as partner unto Me. Those who disbelieve henceforth, they are the miscreants.” (XXIV, 55)
The issue of Qirtas (piece of paper);
The Hadith pertaining to Khum-e-ghadir (a place containing a water pond)
The matter of Bagh-e-Fidak (the Garden of Fidak)
The Ayah of Mubahilah (invocation of curse upon liars) (III, 59-61)
The Ayah of Tathir (purification) (XXXIII, 33)
The Ayah of Mavvadat (loving kindness among kinsfolk) (XLII, 23)
The Hadith concerning Madinatul’ilm (City of Knowledge)
The Hadith of Thaqalain (The Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) hadith concerning his heritage of “two weighty things” viz., the Holy Quran and the Prophet’s off-spring (Ahle-Baet) which, if their teachings were faithfully and steadfastly followed by the Ummah, would help it avoid falling a prey to misguide.)
Hadith-e-Madinatul ‘Ilm (The Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) hadith declaring that he was the “City of Knowledge” and Syedna Ali (R.A) was its gate)
The writing of fatawa, or rulings on religious-cum-juridical issues based on the Quran and Sunnah, is an important branch of Islamic learning. Its importance stems from the fact that the Islamic Shariah comprehends every sphere of a Muslim’s life, be it religious, spiritual, secular or any other. Fatawa are meant to provide correct guidance on matters of day-to-day concern to persons who are not themselves versed in the religious knowledge, but who are nevertheless anxious to observe the Shariah in all matters as meticulously as possible. Because of its nature and importance, the writing of Fatawa calls not only for a thorough knowledge of every aspect of Shariah, but also an ability to interrupt that knowledge accurately in relation to the issues under reference, and also to couch the Fatawa in compilations of such eminent leaders of sunni “Fiqh” as Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi, and Imam Ahmad Bin Humble, and of Imam Jaffer Sadiq (R.A) whose fiqh compilations are drawn upon by the Shi’ah ulama, are the prime sources for the derivation of fatawa.
The book Fatawa-e-Mehria (Rulings of Hazrat Meher Ali Shah) brings together the Fatawa of Hazrat’s own writing. They were first published in book form in 1960. They have been further reviewed twice and their latest (third) revised edition was published in 1988.